Bread Notes

#General Notes about Bread Making ## Wheat Kernel The anatomy of a Wheat Kernel is made up of - The Husk - Bran (~20%) - Endosperm (~75%) - Germ (2-3%) ![Wheat Kernel Anatomy]( /imgs/Anatomy%20of%20a%20Wheat%20Berry.png "Wheat Kernal Anatomy") In order of outside to inside. When the husk is removed the remaining kernel is referred to as a "wheat berry". A Wheat berry is a caryopsis (a type of simple fruit). The Endosperm is what white bread is made out of and whole wheat includes various amounts of bran and germ but it reduces the shelf life of the flour. ## Flour White Flour = mostly endosperm, will last for a year or longer. Whole wheat flour contains the oily germ and will go bad in a couple months. ####All-purpose or Artisan Flour Protein Percentage of 10.5-11.5% King Arthur Flour's Organic Artisan Flour and Giusto's Baker's Choice are favorites, they have a higher protein content. Bleached Flour is a shortcut for longevity (cheaper), prefer Unbleached ####Bread Flour White Bread Flour is 11.5-12.5% protein, its good to use when combining with Rye Flour or lots of stuff like nuts, seeds, cooked grains, or dried fruits but it can be tough and lacking flavor on its own because of the increased protein content. #### Rye Flour For now just know you can add about 10% to a bread for flavor but it gets complicated when adding more (becomes rye bread and the chemical stuff gets complicated) Rye has a higher ash content (inorganic material like the bran, or in rye's case the cell walls in the endosperm which carries minerals and fiber), which is good for you. #### Kernza and other Grains TBD, Kernza is high in protein maybe that could be good for quick breads or combined with wheat for bagels ## Leavening #### Commercial Yeast - Fresh Yeast - Active Dry Yeast - Instant Yeast Fresh Yeast comes in little cakes and has to be refrigerated. The Yeast dies in a couple days but many professional bakeries use them. Active Dry Yeast is typically 1-2 teaspoons per loaf and to convert from fresh to ADY, its 40% of what the recipe calls for. Active Dry Yeast also needs to be proofed before using which means it needs to be desolved in 1/4 to 1/2 cup of 90 degree fahrenheit water. Instant Yeast doesn't need to be proofed, so its just better than everything above. To convert to instant yeast: Fresh Yeast -> 1/3 of that weight in instant yeast Active Dry Yeast -> 3/4 of that weight in instant yeast #### Sourdough Sourdough starter is a combination of wild yeast and bacteria. The bacteria keeps the yeast alive by killing everything else and the yeast feeds the bacteria. Because of this, sourdough starters vary from region to region in how sour they are, french sourdough starters can be very mild. Sourdough starters work a lot slower than commercial yeasts and typically will rise for three to four hours in a a bowl then will need another two or three hours as a shaped loaf. If the dough is fermented in a warm room or allowed to rise slowerly overnight in the fridge or a cool room the bread will have a stronger flavor than if it rose at a room temperature of 65-70. Sourdough acid slows down the staling process and reduces the impact of bread on blood sugar and helps the body absorb more nutrients. ## Salt Salts retard yeast and control the fermentation process and are used for flavor. Table Salt or finely ground sea salt, can be used in normal recipe ratio. Sea Salt, increase volumetric measurement by about 50% (more empty pockets) Kosher Salt, Double the listed volumetric measurement (lots of empty pockets, made to draw blood from meat) ## Water Percentage of Water varies for types of bread Bagels: 50-60% Sandwich Bread: 60-65% French Bread (Baguettes, etc): 65%-70% Ciabattas: 70-80% Whole Grain Breads: For bagels: 60%, for any other breads: 70-85% (Percentages are relative to Flour, with Flour's weight being 100%) ## Other Ingredients Milk, Buttermilk, Yogurt: Can be used to substitute for water to soften the crumb and crust and add flavor to the bread. Will also accentuate the browning of the crust. Flavored Water: When making onion or garlic flavored breads, dry onions are added to boiling water to rehydrate the onions then allowed to cool. 1/4 cup of onions in 2 cups of hot water. Onion rye and onion bagels benefit from using flavored water. Fats (oils and butter): Fats soften crumb and crust, add flavor and lengthen life of bread. Sandwich breads usually have 2-10% of the flour weight, brioche could use 80-100% flour weight in butter. Sugar (honey, molasses, sugar, syrup): Sweeteners can add flavor and delay staling (honey). Typically Sweeteners are 5-15% of flour weight Seeds and Nuts: Often toasted before adding to the dough usually at the end of the dough's development. Often requires bumping up salt to 2.5% of weight. Dried Fruit: Ideally soak for half-hour or overnight before adding, usually 15-30% of Flour weight. Spices and Herbs: Can add a lot of flavor to breads, like dill, rosemary, and cinnamon. Typically around 2-3%. Spices like cinnamon and allspice retard yeast growth, bump up yeast by 50% for these kinds of spices in the dough. Glyphosate Free Honey: https://www.amazon.com/Wholesome-Unfiltered-Pesticide-Glyphosate-Spreadable/dp/B07QZ9FM9J https://www.comvita.com/blog/comvita-is-certified-glyphosate-free#:~:text=This%20means%20all%20Comvita%20Manuka,batch%20of%20Comvita%20Manuka%20Honey. https://heavenlyorganics.com/collections/organic-raw-honey/products/organic-raw-acacia-honey?variant=7512967675964 ## References thefreshloaf.com http://virtual.vtt.fi/virtual/rye/chapter3.htm https://perennial-pantry.com/blogs/perennial-test-kitchen/kernza-in-depth